Volume 11 Issue 04, July 2023

Exploring Electric Vehicles: Functioning, Comparisons, and Future Prospects

Rishabh Patel, Devendra Sharma, Saurabh Gupta

Page no:01-06


The detrimental impacts of gasoline-powered vehicles on the environment and human health have prompted the automotive industry to transition to electric vehicles (EVs). This report aims to elucidate the functionality of EVs and draw comparisons with internal combustion engines (ICEs) and hybrid vehicles. Furthermore, it explores the advantages and disadvantages of EVs, along with insights into the future prospects of this technology. EVs exhibit significantly higher efficiency than ICEs, efficiently converting more energy from the grid to power the wheels. They also offer instant torque, enabling swift acceleration and a smoother driving experience. Although EVs may have limitations such as limited range and higher upfront costs, their numerous benefits in terms of sustainability, efficiency, and reduced emissions establish them as a viable alternative to traditional gasoline-powered vehicles.

Improved Energy-Aware Indoor WSN Localization Using Range-Based Genetic Algorithm

Satendra Ahirwal, Jitendra Singh

Page no:07-13


This study focuses on improving energy-efficient indoor localization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) using a Range-based Genetic Algorithm (RBGA) based on Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI). WSNs consist of a multitude of sensor nodes deployed in an area to monitor remote locations. These sensor nodes comprise various components that sense, process, and transmit data collaboratively. WSNs find applications in diverse fields, ranging from indoor to outdoor deployments, including medical health, environmental and agricultural monitoring, intelligent home automation, military operations, space exploration, and marine research. Many wireless device network applications necessitate sensor localization techniques and awareness of each node's physical location. The localization process involves utilizing range measurements and the received signal strength for precise positioning. Ensuring both network security and energy conservation in WSNs is a challenging task. In order to address these concerns, this research investigates RSSI-based localization methods. The study is divided into two components. Firstly, exact positioning is based on the RSSI received from nodes, which leads to higher energy consumption. The distribution movement of RSSI is examined in this experiment, followed by the loss model of signal broadcast processing experimental data. Secondly, individual RSSI measurements are processed at various distances to improve localization accuracy. The RSSI range-based technique faces challenges due to its low positioning accuracy, low energy efficiency, and high error rate. The proposed RBGA is employed to overcome these issues, which optimizes the localization process by minimizing error rates and providing the most likely solution satisfying all factors.

An Energy Optimised and Energy Efficient MANET application Using Routing Protocol

Mayank Soni, Jitendra Singh

Page no:14-23


This research focuses on enhancing mobile ad hoc network (MANET) applications through an energy-optimised and energy-efficient MANET routing technology. The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is a recent VANET application that combines the Internet and IoT. MANET is an infrastructure-less network where wireless devices can communicate and exchange information without a centralised administrator. It consists of mobile nodes wirelessly connected in a self-configured, self-healing network. As technology advances, there is a growing demand for a traffic environment that facilitates collaboration among vehicles, leading to less traffic congestion, reduced chances of collisions, lower communication latency, fewer communication faults, and a higher message delivery ratio. Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are designed to enable vehicles to communicate in an infrastructure-free environment. In this context, vehicles in a MANET communicate with each other using a routing protocol to exchange messages and provide information, especially regarding hazardous situations. In this study, we propose an energy-optimised and energy-efficient MANET application using the MAODV routing protocol. We compare this approach to the existing AODV protocol, which exhibits a lower packet delivery ratio, higher latency, and increased energy consumption. Through implementation in a network simulator, we demonstrate that our proposed technique utilising the MAODV protocol results in a higher packet delivery ratio, reduced delay, and lower energy consumption. The primary objective of this research is to present commonly utilised metrics in various proposals and their corresponding application scenarios. By utilising the routing protocol (MAODV), our proposed approach aims to improve the performance of MANET applications.